tutorial

Learn scrum with Jira Software

Instrucciones pormenorizadas sobre cómo dirigir un proyecto basado en scrum

Claire Maynard Claire Maynard

Tutorial de scrum

In this tutorial, we'll give you step-by-step instructions on how to drive a scrum project, prioritize and organize your backlog into sprints, run scrum ceremonies and more, all within Jira Software.

Duración:

Lectura de 10 minutos de duración. Completar en 2 semanas.

 

Público:

You are new to scrum, agile software development, or Jira Software

 

Requisito previo:

Crear una cuenta de Jira Software.

Pruébalo gratis

¿Qué es scrum?

Scrum is one of the most popular frameworks for implementing agile. With scrum, the product is built in a series of fixed-length iterations called sprints that give teams a framework for shipping on a regular cadence.

 

Paso 1: Crea un proyecto de scrum

Once you create and log in to an account in Jira Software, you can create a project. When you're prompted to select a project template, select Scrum. Otherwise, you can learn how to create a Kanban project here.

Alternatively, if you’re looking for a simpler and more streamlined experience, consider giving our next-gen Scrum template a try. See Getting started with next-gen projects at the Atlassian Community to learn more.

Once you've created your project, you will land on the empty backlog. The backlog is also known as the product backlog and contains an ongoing list of your team's potential work items for the project.

Paso 2: Crear historias de usuario o tareas en el backlog

In Jira Software, we call work items like user stories, tasks, and bugs "issues". Create a few user stories with the quick create option on the backlog. If you don't have user stories in mind, just create sample stories to get started and see how the process works.

 

Creación de historias de usuario | Orientador ágil de Atlassian
¿Qué son las historias de usuario?

User stories are used to describe work items in a non-technical language and from a user's perspective. . As a {type of user}, I want {goal} so that I {receive benefit}.

 

Vamos a utilizar una página web como ejemplo sencillo para crear una historia de usuario.

 

As a customer, I want to be able to create an account so that I can see my previous purchases.

 

User stories are usually sketched out and prioritized by the product owner, and then the development team determines detailed tasks necessary to complete the story in an upcoming sprint. The development team is also responsible for estimating the relative effort required to complete the work of the story.  

Once you've created a few user stories, you can start prioritizing them in the backlog. In Jira Software, you rank or prioritize your stories by dragging and dropping them in the order that they should be worked on.

These are just the starting stories for your project. You will continue to create stories for the project's lifetime. This is because agility involves continuously learning and adapting.

Step 3: Create a sprint

Create your first sprint in the backlog so you can start planning the sprint.

¿Qué es un sprint?

In Scrum, teams forecast to complete a set of user stories or other work items during a fixed time duration, known as a sprint. Generally speaking, sprints are one, two, or four weeks long. It's up to the team to determine the length of a sprint — we recommend starting with two weeks. That's long enough to get something accomplished, but not so long that the team isn't getting regular feedback. Once a sprint cadence is determined, the team perpetually operates on that cadence. Fixed length sprints reinforce estimation skills and predict the future velocity for the team as they work through the backlog.

Creación de un sprint | Orientador ágil de Atlassian

Step 4: Hold the sprint planning meeting

At the beginning of a sprint, you should hold the sprint planning meeting with the rest of your team. The sprint planning meeting is a ceremony that sets up the entire team for success throughout the sprint. In this meeting, the entire team discusses the sprint goal and the stories in the prioritized product backlog. The development team creates detailed tasks and estimates for the high-priority stories. The development team then commits to completing a certain number of stories in the sprint. These stories and the plan for completing them become what is known as the sprint backlog.

Add story point estimates to your stories by adding a number in the Story point estimate field. You can also add more details to the stories or click the create subtask icon to further break down the work of the story.

Creación de un sprint | Orientador ágil de Atlassian

When you're ready, drag the stories agreed to in the sprint planning meeting into the sprint that you just created. This is your sprint backlog.

¿En qué consiste la reunión de planificación de sprints?

Asistentes: Se necesita: Equipo de desarrollo, experto en scrum y propietario del producto.

 

Cuándo: Al empezar un sprint.

 

Duration: Usually two hours per week of iteration – e.g. a two-week sprint kicks off with a four-hour planning meeting. The meeting ends when its purpose has been achieved.

 

Purpose: Plan the work of the sprint. The team agrees to the sprint goal and the sprint backlog.

What is a sprint goal?

When creating a sprint, the product owner usually identifies a sprint goal. This provides a theme for the work to be completed in the sprint. A sprint goal also provides some flexibility in the number of stories that are completed in a sprint. A sprint is considered a success if the sprint goal is achieved.

¿Qué es la estimación ágil?

Traditional software teams give estimates in a time format: days, weeks, months.
Many agile teams, however, have transitioned to story points. Story points rate the relative effort of work, often in a Fibonacci-like format: 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 20, 40, 100. 

Estimates help you gauge how much work you should add to the next sprint based on the number of team members you have. After a few sprints, your team will get better at figuring out how much work they can do each sprint, which will help avoid over-committing.

Step 5: Start the sprint in Jira

Name the sprint. Some teams name the sprint based on their sprint goal. If there is a commonality between the issues in the sprint, name the sprint around that theme. Otherwise, you can name the sprint whatever you like.

Add a duration of the sprint and start and end dates. The start and end dates should align to your team's schedule. For example, some teams start sprints on a Monday and then end on a Friday morning in the next week. Other teams decide to start and end their sprints mid-week. It's up to you! If you're unsure how long your sprints should be, we recommend trying two weeks.

Add the sprint goal as agreed to in the sprint planning meeting.

Una vez iniciado el sprint, se te dirigirá a la pestaña Active sprints (Sprints activos) del proyecto.

Sprints activos | Orientador ágil de Atlassian

Este es el sitio en el que el equipo trabajará para seleccionar los elementos de la columna de tareas pendientes y llevarlos a la de tareas en curso y, por último, a la de tareas finalizadas.

If you’re using the next-gen Scrum template, this will be called Board.

Step 6: Hold the daily standup meetings

Tras iniciar el sprint, el equipo se debe reunir a diario, normalmente por la mañana, para revisar las tareas que realiza cada uno. El objetivo de esta reunión es comprobar si alguien del equipo está experimentado bloqueos que le impiden realizar las tareas del sprint.

¿En qué consisten las reuniones rápidas diarias?

Attendees (Primarily): development team

 

Cuándo: Una vez al día, normalmente por la mañana.

 

Duración: 15 minutos como máximo. No reserves ninguna sala de conferencias ni celebres la reunión sentados. ¡Estar de pie hace que la reunión dure menos!

 

Purpose: The daily standup is designed to inform everyone quickly of what's going on across the team and to plan the work of the day. It's not a full status meeting. The tone should be light and fun, but informative. Have each team member answer the following questions:

 

  • ¿Qué terminé ayer?
  • ¿En qué voy a trabajar hoy?
  • ¿Estoy bloqueado con algo?

 

Informar del trabajo que se terminó el día anterior delante de los compañeros lleva implícita una responsabilidad. Nadie quiere ser el miembro del equipo que siempre está haciendo lo mismo y no avanza.

 

Consejo de experto: Algunos equipos se sirven de temporizadores para que todos sigan el rumbo previsto. Otros lanzan pelotas al equipo para asegurarse de que presten atención. Muchos equipos distribuidos utilizan las videoconferencias o los chats de grupo para acortar distancias. Tu equipo es único. ¡Tus reuniones rápidas también deben serlo!

You can use the active sprints of your scrum board during the daily standup, so that each member can view the tasks they're working on.

Step 7: View the Burndown Chart

It's a good idea to check the Burndown Chart during a sprint. In Jira Software, the Burndown Chart shows the actual and estimated amount of work to be done in a sprint. The Burndown Chart is automatically updated by Jira as you complete work items. To view this chart, click Reports from the sidebar, and then select the Burndown Chart from the reports dropdown.

Qué es un diagrama de evolución y cómo se interpreta

A Burndown Chart shows the actual and estimated amount of work to be done in a sprint. The horizontal x-axis in a Burndown Chart indicates time, while the vertical y-axis typically indicates story points.

 

El diagrama de evolución se utiliza para supervisar todo el trabajo restante y proyectar la posibilidad de alcanzar el objetivo del sprint. Supervisar el trabajo total restante mediante iteraciones permite al equipo gestionar su progreso y responder de la forma correspondiente.

Diagrama de evolución ágil | Orientador ágil de Atlassian
Antipatrones ante los que estar alerta
  • El equipo termina antes de tiempo todos los sprints porque no están asumiendo trabajo suficiente.
  • El equipo no cumple los pronósticos sprint tras sprint porque están asumiendo demasiado trabajo.
  • La línea de evolución marca caídas pronunciadas en lugar de una evolución más gradual debido a que el trabajo no se ha dividido granularmente.
  • El propietario del producto añade o cambia el alcance en mitad del sprint.

Step 8: View the sprint report

At any point during or after the sprint, you can view the Sprint Report to monitor the sprint.

What is the sprint report?

The Sprint Report includes the Burndown Chart, and lists the work completed, work not completed, and any work added after the sprint started.

 

Step 9: Hold the sprint review meeting

The sprint review, or sprint demo, is a sharing meeting where the team shows what they've shipped in that sprint. Each sprint usually produces a working part of the product called an increment.

This is a meeting with a lot of feedback on the project and includes a brainstorming session to help decide what to do next.

Attendees (Primarily): development team, scrum master, product owner.
Optional: stakeholders

 

When: Typically on the last day of the sprint

 

Duration: Typically two hours for a two-week sprint

 

Purpose: Inspect the increment and collaboratively update the product backlog.

 

Preguntas que se deben plantear:

 

  • ¿Ha cumplido el equipo el pronóstico del sprint?
  • ¿Se ha añadido o eliminado trabajo en la mitad del sprint?
  • ¿Hay algún trabajo que no se haya finalizado en el sprint?
  • En tal caso, indica los motivos.

Paso 10: Organizar la reunión retrospectiva del sprint

After you complete the sprint, have your team do a retrospective. Document your retrospective somewhere. May we suggest Confluence?

¿En qué consiste una reunión retrospectiva de sprints?

Attendees: development team, scrum master, product owner.

 

Cuándo: Al acabar una iteración.

 

Duration:  Typically 90 minutes for a two-week sprint.

 

Purpose: The team inspects itself, including its processes, tools and team interaction. Improvement issues are often added to the next sprint's backlog.

 

Las retrospectivas no son un momento para quejarse sin adoptar medidas. Empléalas para averiguar lo que funciona para que el equipo pueda seguir concentrado en esas áreas. Asimismo, descubre qué es lo que no funciona y dedica un tiempo a encontrar soluciones creativas y desarrollar un plan de acción. La mejora continua es lo que sostiene e impulsa el desarrollo en un equipo ágil, y las retrospectivas constituyen una parte esencial.

 

Preguntas que se deben plantear:

 

  • ¿Qué aciertos tuvimos durante el sprint?
  • ¿Qué podríamos haber hecho mejor?
  • ¿Qué vamos a mejorar para la próxima vez?

 

Consejo de experto: Aunque todo vaya bien en el equipo, sigue haciendo retrospectivas. Las retrospectivas ofrecen una orientación constante para que el equipo siga haciendo las cosas bien.

Step 11: Complete the sprint in Jira

Al final del sprint, debes completarlo.

If the sprint has incomplete issues, you can:

  • Move the issue(s) to the backlog.
  • Move the issue(s) to a future sprint.
  • Move the issue(s) to a new sprint, which Jira will create for you.

Step 12: Repeat from step 2

Llegados a este punto, dispones de los conocimientos básicos sobre cómo crear el backlog con las historias de usuarios, cómo organizar las historias de usuario en sprints, iniciar el sprint y celebrar ceremonias de scrum. Tienes la capacidad de decidir si esto funciona para tu equipo o si te gustaría pasar a algunos temas más avanzados.

 Una vez que tu equipo y tú dominéis los pasos anteriores, pasad al artículo avanzado: Cómo realizar prácticas de scrum avanzadas con Jira Software.